TRJ Environmental

Literature Surveys and Databases

Indoor Emission Rates for Hazardous Pollutants. Tom Long and Jill Mozier reviewed the scientific literature on indoor VOC emission rates and developed DIME (a menu-driven database) to organize and display the results. DIME includes emission data specific to consumer products, building and furnishing materials, indoor combustion, and other sources. This work was directed by the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI) in support of exposure modeling research sponsored by the American Chemistry Council.

Exposure Factors for APEX-Ozone. Tom Long conducted a literature review for input data to be used in the development of the Air Pollution Exposure Model applied to ozone (APEX-Ozone), including ozone decay rates, air exchange rates, microenvironment characteristics such as window position and air conditioning prevalence, and proximity factors. He has also assisted with validation of the ventilation rate algorithm used in APEX by writing a program to process time/activity data for input to the ventilation rate algorithm simulator code.

Databases for the SHEDS Exposure Model. In work for EPA’s National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) , Ted Johnson and Tom Long prepared comprehensive databases listing personal and microenvironmental measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) made during three major field studies. Ted Johnson conducted detailed statistical analyses of these databases and summarized the results in the project report “Analyses of Selected VOC Data Collected During Three Recent Field Studies that Employed Scripted Activity Methodologies.”

Outdoor Time, Physical Exertion, and Breathing Rates. Jill Mozier obtained and reviewed literature containing data useful in characterizing the time a child spends outdoors, particularly when the child’s ventilation rate is high. She also obtained and reviewed literature containing data from personal monitoring studies that provide a real-time record of a physiological parameter (e.g., pulse rate) that could be related to the subject’s energy expenditure rate, oxygen uptake rate (VO2), and/or ventilation rate (VE). After obtaining the 50 most relevant articles from this literature survey, Ms. Mozier compiled extended abstracts for the client.

Comprehensive Time/Activity Database. Ted Johnson combined diary data from 10 diary studies into a unique person-hour database appropriate for statistical analysis and comparisons. Ted Johnson analyzed this database and identified the principal factors affecting time spent in microenvironments associated with high exposures to air pollution.

Effects of Air Pollution on Surface UV-B. Jill Mozier conducted an in-depth survey of the scientific literature pertaining to the effects of tropospheric ozone and particulate matter on surface UV-B radiation.

Section 211 Requirements for Gasoline Additives. Jill Mozier conducted a series of literature surveys to acquire information on population exposures to gasoline additives, measurement methods applicable to exposure studies planned by industry, and source apportionment data. She prepared a report summarizing the results of these surveys.

Dermal and Inhalation Exposure to Drinking Water. Jill Mozier and Tom Long reviewed exposure data and human activity pattern data to determine how factors such as demographics, microenvironments, and daily activity patterns affect people's dermal and inhalational exposure to drinking water. They assisted Ted Johnson in summarizing these findings in a report for the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI).

Microenvironmental Factors for HAPEM/NATA. Tom Long developed point estimates and distributions for the microenvironmental (ME) factors used in the enhanced version of the Hazardous Air Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM) created for the National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). His work included reviewing literature on indoor/outdoor concentration ratios; selecting studies with high-quality, relevant data; estimating ME factors from the study data; and assigning pollutants and microenvironments to groups likely to have similar ME factors.

Indoor/Outdoor Ratios for BTEX. Jill Mozier performed extensive literature reviews and prepared a summary report concerning indoor/outdoor levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (the BTEX compounds), to be used in the microenvironmental pollutant algorithms which are part of HAPEM-MS. She has also researched EPA's aerometric information retrieval system (AIRS) national CO monitoring database, in combination with census data, and recommended criteria for use in rural site selection in a summary report to EPA.

Outdoor Worker Profiles. Ms. Mozier researched Bureau of Census occupation descriptions, summarized descriptions for approximately 100 potential outdoor-related occupations, and designed a survey during which an expert panel came to a consensus as to which occupations should be considered truly "outdoor." These outdoor occupations and their respective Bureau of Census population counts were used in the establishment of input data bases for the exposed population simulated by the pNEM-O3 model, as applied to outdoor workers.

Input Parameters for Particulate Matter Exposure Model. Tom Long conducted a literature review and developed distributions of model input parameters for the SimExpo-PM mass balance exposure model. SimExpo-PM was developed by TRJ Environmental, Inc. to estimate population exposure to PM2.5. The model is purposely designed to facilitate the evaluation of alternative air quality scenarios and the effects of changing various model parameters.

Mercury Levels in Fish. Ted Johnson and Gary Mihlan conducted a series of statistical analyses of EPA’s STORET data base to identify and characterize relationships between mercury levels in fish and lake sulfate concentrations.